April 4

Week 13-

Presentations on student Global Hip Hop

Sources: Use at least two good academic sources, in addition to fansites, youtube, etc.

Global noise : rap and hip-hop outside the USA /edited by Tony Mitchell.

This book has good chapters on UK and Japan.


Slingshot hip hop

talk to me about other sources, but this is your main sourece <!– Slingshot hip hop –>

DVD is ON reserve for this class


Y’all are on your own, let me know if you run into trouble.


Black British Cultural Studies and the Rap on Gangsta

plus chapter above


Desi Music Vibes- The Performance of Indian Youth Culture in Chicago Author(s)- Gregory Diethrich

Desi South Asian


Pedagogy and hip Hop Brazil

Mediation of Race in Brazilian Rap


Fetishized Blackness- Hip Hop and Racial Desire in Contemporary Japan Author(

RJ: Write three sentences about how each of this week’s three articles relates to the arguments in the film Beyond Beats and Rhymes (Byron Hurt, 2006) and those discussed in class. If you missed class, you must see the film on your own.

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14 Responses to April 4

  1. Kate Schreiber says:

    In the documentary by Byron Hurt, Beyond Beats and Rhymes, Hurt explores how the world of Hip Hop has contributed to the normalization of such derogatory terms such as “bitch” and “ho” in addition to contributing to the stereotype of Black male rappers and hip hop artists (perhaps the Black male in general) obsession with violence and the sexual objectification of women. As Melissa Campbell so adequately states in her article, ‘Go White Girl!’: Hip Hop Booty Dancing and the White Female Body, within the subculture of hip hop there exists the two prominent themes of authenticity and resistance. In Hurt’s documentary, he reiterates Campbell’s claim by investigating how Black rap artists must prove certain authentic status by demonstrating a passion or execution of at least one of the following things: violence, guns, exemplification of manhood or sexual achievements or accomplishment. Hurt also reinforces Campbell’s claim by showing a certain element of resistance that is present among men who participate in the world of rap. During the Hip Hop event “Spring Bling” he interviews several aspiring rap artists who maintain that “no one wants to hear anything polite” instead, they resist authority by rapping about drugs, alcohol, “hoes and bitches”, guns and sex. Another way in which Hurt’s film correlates with Campbell’s assertions is in his evaluation of how rap artists present themselves for their audience and fellow rap artists to see. Quite as Campbell mentioned, the four elements of subculture are “dress, music, argot and ritual” (Campbell 499). Beyond Beats and Rhymes uses L.L. Cool J as a perfect example of these four elements. His dress – baggy pants, no shirt, big chain and greased up chest oddly emphasize his manhood (though Hurt argues this falls in line with the homoerotic gaze, for the purposes of relating Hurt to Campbell, that point is not relevant for my current comparison) While his music includes lyrics that objectify women or treat them as sexual objects for him to lure, seduce and eventually conquer, his argot, or his jargon uses stereotypical black phrases like “yo” etc. And as for ritual, it would appear that Cool J serves as an artist whose ritual includes sex appeal and an ultimate presentation of manhood. Another quick but pertinent example of Campbell’s that we saw in the documentary is the idea that “the booty or butt has also become a fetish object in black culture” (Campbell 501) – this was overtly obvious as Hurt films a multitude of Black men grabbing any young female’s butt whenever they so choose.
    In Joan Morgan’s article “Fly Girls, Bitches and Hoes: Notes of a Hip Hop Feminist” she addresses the issue of the abusive nature of lyrics in many hip hop songs. Again, something Hurt explores at the Spring Bling event in his documentary. She claims “the abuse is undeniable” and yet, the majority of women Hurt interviews don’t seem to mind – one woman saying it didn’t bother her because she did not feel the lyrics were directed at her specifically, another transvestite claiming that these aggressive lyrics “turn her on”. While I’ve exceeded the three sentence requirement, I will end stating that Byron Hurt did a phenomenal job of researching how hip hop lyrics, behavior and reception has contributed to unfortunate normalization of offensive language and portrayals that have seemingly dominated the world of hip hop and rap.

  2. Candice Kosanke says:

    In “Beyond Beats and Rhymes,” Byron Hurt describes how hip-hop is “a man’s game.” This supports the information in the articles by Melissa Campbell and Joan Morgan. In her article, Campbell discusses how women are constantly construed as sex objects by hip-hop culture. Even when women are trying to exercise their right to sexual liberation by booty dancing, men are objectifying them. This fit into the Spring Break scenes shown in the film. The women are trying to participate in the hip-hop community, but the men are completely objectifying them. The men grab them and take pictures of them, and the men interviewed seemed to think that the women should have known that that’s what would happen if they participated in the event.

    Joan Morgan also describes the misogyny of hip-hop, but in a more sympathetic manner. According to her article, male hip-hop artists insult and objectify women, but they do it only because they have no other way of expressing themselves. This supports the content of the film, such as when Byron Hurt says that men are trapped in a “box” of violence, because they are expected to be extremely masculine, and masculinity is often associated with being tough and in control, being a player, and objectifying women. He urges men to take a good look at themselves and who they are forced to be, just as Morgan urges both men and women to stop the hate associated with hip-hop culture.

  3. Elise Peterson says:

    Melissa Campbell points out the element of “booty dancing” in hip-hop culture as a practice that simoultaniously is sexually liberating for women, and sexually degrading for them. Women willingly participate in this sexual dancing as a means of participating in the male dominated hip-hop scene. This however is also means for women to be objectified by the masculine culture of rap music. This relates back to the Byron Hurt film when he discusses the female role in hip-hop culture as only a sexual object.

    During the scene in the film where Byron Hurt is interviewing aspiring rappers about the use degrating female words like “bitches” and “hos”, we saw the denial that the young women were in about their involvement with those words. no one seemed to think the men were describing them with those negative words, they seemed to think of themselves as “sistas” instead (when they actually were being described by the men as bitches and hos). Joan morgan touches on this issue in her essay when she discusses black women’s role in verbal objectification. She claims that women will even refer to eachother as “bitches”, perpetuating the notion that this type of language is okay for man to use too.

  4. Becky Esrock says:

    In Joan Morgan’s article, “Fly-Girls, Bitches, and Hoes: Notes of a Hip-Hop Feminist,” a lot of the sexist references to women she brings up are demonstrated first hand by men interviewed in Beyond Beats and Rhymes. Morgan’s hypothesis centers on the underlying meaning behind this hostile and objectification of women by young male rappers. She asserts that there is a “seemingly impenetrable wall of sexism and machismo in rap music [which] is really the mask worn both to hide and to express the pain” (Morgan 154). Her interpretation of this characterization of women as bitches and hoes relies on a projection of their pain and oppression they feel upon those closest to them, women.
    Additionally, Melissa Campbell’s article, “’Go White Girl!’: Hip Hop Booty Dancing and the White Female Body,” has ties to Byron Hurt’s film as well. Throughout the article, Campbell addresses the sexualization of females dancing to hip hop, as well as the cultural associations of booty dancing. In the course of Hurt’s film, his interviews with countless young males demonstrate an overwhelming tendency in the rap industry to sexualize women and refer to them as hitches and hoes. In one scene, males claim that by their dress you can tell which women are bitches and which are “sistas.” When these two analysis are combined, a phenomenon of sexually objectifying women through hip hop emerges; this is achieved through characterizations of their dress by members of the hip hop community intertwined with common dance practices particular to the genre.

  5. Jessica Steele says:

    Joan Morgan and Melissa Campbell both discuss the sexualization of women in rap music and in the hip-hop culture. The African-American woman, as seen in hip-hop videos and music, is a sexual image. Campbell explains that “since the nineteenth century, the ‘booty’ or ‘butt’ has become a fetish object in black culture” (501). This was obviously displayed in the documentary film, Beyond Beats and Rhymes. The men had their video camera and focused on the female bodies, holding the cameras under their dresses. The hip-hop culture has positioned women as simply a sexual object. Joan Morgan sees this sexism as something that African-American women have to accept as existent and not fight against it. She states that “the seemingly impenetrable wall of sexism and machismo in rap music is really the mask worn both to hide and to express the pain” (154). In her eyes, the black men have to strong community in which they can express emotion. They use the hip-hop music as a means of expression, so, in a sense, it is acceptable for them to speak in such a way of women. In the documentary, the men seemed to believe that they way they behaved towards women was a part of their identity as black men.

  6. Donald Duncan says:

    In Beyond Beats and Rhymes, Byron Hurt highlights the objectification of the African-American woman in hip-hop. With the footage he obtained from BET “Spring Bling,” the men feel justified to explicitly film the women in unappropriated places, fondly them without permission and express vulgar, sexual comments to them. However, the women either ignore the remarks because they felt like “it does not refer to me” or retaliate with physical assault to protect themselves. Joan Morgan believes the fact that Black men in hip-hop are incapable of loving themselves so the idea of degrading females makes him feel more like men. “We feel that the real crime being committed isn’t the name-calling but their failure to love us-to be our brothers in the way that we commit ourselves to being their sistas (154). However, Campbell expresses that Black women’s body are often promiscuous in the way they exploit their bodies “seeing it as a lure to manipulate men’s desire for women’s own purposes (502).

  7. Alyx Smagacz says:

    Joan Morgan comments on how male hip hop artist “play a critical part in defining my feminism” She mentions that she listens to the music and tries to see past some of it to get to the meaning of why everything is happening the way it is, why they sing about drugs and alcohol and are degrading to women. I feel that this closely relates to the film “Beyond Beats and Rhymes”when they talk about the women that were seen at the Spring Bling. Here we have a woman who notices that there is a problem with the way that women are seen in society on the other hand, in the film when they questioned the women at the concert, they all seemed to think that this image was not of them. The fact that Joan Morgan is worried about the reputation of the women makes her stand out from the crowd and brings her away from the stereotype, but she is still threatened by what the stereotype is because of what it could be saying about her and other women.

  8. Linnea Zrioka says:

    In the movie Beyond Beats and Rhymes, Hurt discusses what hip hop looks like today. Many male hip hop artist’s lyrics includes gun-play, violence, and what it means to be a man; you need to have a gun and girls, and you cannot be “weak.” Hurt discusses how hip hop is in a box; it cannot move away from those themes. This relates to the article “Fly-Girls, Bitches, and Hoes: Notes of A Hip Hop Feminist” by Joan Morgan, which addresses the issue of violence. Male hip hop artists can express some of their emotions through their music, but they need to remain “macho” and cannot be too weak, “When brothers can talk so cavalierly about killing each other and then reveal that they have no expectation to see their twenty-first birthday, that is straight-up depression masquerading as machismo” (Morgan 153). She goes on to say that “this seemingly impenetrable wall of sexism and machismo in rap music is really the mask worn both to hide and to express the pain” (Morgan 154). They still need to remain macho in order to be respected by other men. In Beyond Beats and Rhymes the issue of female portrayal within hip hop was addressed; women are often referred to as “bitches” and “hoes” and overall very sexualized. This portrayal didn’t remain solely within the music. It was shown that on a Spring Break hip hop event, women were being viewed as sex objects; men were freely grabbing women within the street without consent and without knowing the women. They acted like they had a right to those women’s bodies. In Campbell’s article “Go White Girl!’: Hip Hop Booty Dancing and the White Female Body,” she discusses how men have learned ideas about women, “males learn to normalize ‘the sexual domination and humiliation of Black women” (Campbell 502). The men (and boys) at the Spring Break event had a previously learned idea that they have power and a right over women’s bodies. Campbell also discusses how women view this sexualized image; “Females learn to accept the imagery in music videos ‘as the definition of beauty’” (502). Repeated exposure to such images also has an effect on the women, who may portray those images and actions as what it means to be “beautiful.” The articles and the movie questioned the function of hip hop and what it is doing for society. They looked critically at the themes and language within hip hop and the negative affects it has on both women and men.

  9. Stephanie Morales says:

    In Campbell’s article “Go White Girl!’: Hip Hop Booty Dancing and the White Female Body,” she discusses how men have learned ideas about women. These men are taught through experience and media about how to think of women in the sense of relation to men and how “males learn to normalize ‘the sexual domination and humiliation of Black women” (Campbell 502). This article relates to Beyond Beats and Rhymes film because within the film we see several instances where men define women as “bitches” “sisters’ or “hoes”. there are these set up categories and are defined by sexually due to their characteristics. Campbell is also making a larger statement about how hip hop has constructed this box to put women in and they are both defined and recognized in that manner in the real world by men.

    In Joan Morgan’s article “Fly-Girls, Bitches, and Hoes: Notes of A Hip Hop Feminist” it addresses the issue of hip hop and its affects on the community of blacks. This community is constructed by their fear of not having enough money/power. In this article Morgan brings up the fact that black men cant express themselves and therefore are filled with these emotions that they cannot bring to the public space because according the film men will then be seen as “weaK” a “punk” a “pussy” and many more mean names. Hip hop there fore became this escape route to feel and express pain, problems, among their sexual conquests that then relates back to the sexualized life these men are expected to have in order to gain some respect.

  10. Lisa Sorensen says:

    In the film, “Beyond Beats and Rhymes,” shows the way hip-hop is portrayed today. In the film Hurt shows that hip-hop is associated with violence and the man the way boys become men. In doing this, women are used to increase the process of becoming a man. In “Fly-Girls, Bitches, and Hoes: Notes of a Hip-Hop Feminist,” use many terms against women in a sexist way. It also talks about how men need to be seen as higher up and strong, using hip-hop to get this across and discussing women in it.
    These ideas that men use about women in their music is discussed in Campbell’s article “Go White Girl!’: Hip Hop Booty Dancing and the White Female Body.” In the film, women are not referred to as women or girls, however mostly as hoes or bitches. The women are shown in the movie as eye candy for the men. It seems as though they are giving them reasons to rap about them.

  11. Courtney King says:

    Byron Hurt creates in his film the dilemna of Rap music. He talks about how rap has created this image of what it means to be a man. And how to make one man have more mascuility he must rip it from other.
    Joan Morgan’s piece talks about the relationship between women and rap and how it can be seen as an abusive relationship. Sh talks about the degrading of women being a constant theme. Hurt’s movie has once seen where he asks several women what they think about the way rap describes them, and one lady say” when he is talking about bitches he is not talking about me, cause i don’t idetifywith that.” Although she listens to this music where every women is a bitch or a hoe she says it does not apply to her, And I never realized how dumb that sounds until I saw it coming from someone’s mouth. I really like rap music but I don’t consider myself a bitch or a hoe.

  12. Diana says:

    Joan Morgan and Campbell both argue that hip hop has transformed into male dominated industry where a woman is sexually objectified and has accepted the names of “ho” and “bitch” that reflect a man’s masculinity and dominance over other black rappers. When Joan Morgan interviewed many hip hop artists, such as Busta Ryhmes, he refused to talk about gay hip hop artists because being gay is not associated with hip hop. Campell includes that males learn to normalize ‘the seuxal domination and humiliation of Black women’ and to equate ‘a good time with being drunk or high’ (Rose, 2001). In addition, “pimping” was consider and can be consider till this day, a form of black patriarchy’r role in the black community. Therefore, pimping women is esstenial part of the hip hop culture where black women accept the the imagery in music videos as being valuable by wearing the expesive clothes or lingerie. This tells black women that this is the closest they’ll ever get to with the black hip hop culture.
    In relation to Campbell’s article, booty dancing is a form of dance associated with black hip hop where the body of a black woman, specifically her ass, has historically represented the sexual expression that both white men and women have longed for. Because the black women’s behind is seen as exotic and desirable, white women try to imitate black mannerisms without realizing that they are invading a black women’s space within hip hop culture.

  13. Sara Watson says:

    Through these texts and the documentary by Bryon Hurt it appears that hip hop has positioned itself as a male dominated music genre that objectifies women as sexual objects. In regards to the Bryon Hurt documentary Beyond Beats and Rhymes it was clear to see women as being objectified on the streets. The women attending this spring break event were harassed both verbally and physically with men yelling derogatory terms, holding video cameras under their skirts and physically touching them as they walked by on the street. In Joan Morgan’s article “Fly-Girls, Bitches, and Hoes: Notes of A Hip Hop Feminist” it addresses the issue that black men feel as though they cannot express themselves for fear of ridicule or being ignored by the public and thus turn to hip hop as a form of expression. The Campbell’s article “Go White Girl!’: Hip Hop Booty Dancing and the White Female Body,” further addresses the effects of hip hop on culture and society today and pays particular attention to the effects on black women. As a result hip hop has been accepted as a place for male dominance and the overall objectification of women. These ideals of hip hop are appear to be accepted in both mainstream hip hop artists through lyrics, music videos and in the consumers of hip hop.

  14. Brittany Sheehan says:

    Byron Hurt’s documentary “Beyond Beats and Rhymes” provides viewers with an in-depth look at modern day hip-hop through interviews with popular hip-hop artists and footage from a BET sponsored spring break event. Throughout the film, the men are constantly looking for ways to define their masculinity, often times by degrading other men in rap battles or objectifying women. Hurt elaborates on this when he mentions that hip-hop is trapped inside of a box containing: sex, drugs, violence, and money.
    In my opinion, the clips from the movie that we saw in class support the main arguments by Campbell and Morgan. Campbell talks a lot about the objectification of women in the hip-hop culture and we saw accurate portrayals of that in the film when men would put cameras under girl’s skirts or verbally ridicule them as they walked down the street. From Morgan’s article I felt she was trying to figure out how, or when, women became disrespected by their “brothers.” Morgan’s article reminded me of the scenes in the film when the women were being interviewed and some said that the lyrics in hip-hop weren’t offensive because they know the song is not directed at them. By being desensitized to the lyrics, women stop questioning the lyrics and the hip-hop artists do not see their lyrics as wrong or hurtful. As a possible outcome, Morgan urges both men and women to take a more positive approach and support each other amongst the hip-hop community instead of attacking each other. Hurt also supports this idea and he encourages men to look in the mirror and question their actions.

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